The gut-brain axis is a bidirectional communication pathway between the gut and the brain. This communication occurs via a complex network of neural, endocrine, and immune signalling pathways. The gut-brain axis plays a critical role in regulating many physiological processes, including appetite, metabolism, and immune function.
Recent research has highlighted the importance of the gut microbiome in regulating the gut-brain axis. The gut microbiome has been shown to influence the development and function of the enteric nervous system, which is a complex network of neurons that controls gut motility, secretion, and blood flow. The gut microbiome has also been shown to influence the production of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides that regulate brain function and behaviour.