Reference Number: 144
Health: Gut Microbiome
The aim of this study was to explore in 30 healthy volunteers the impact of whole Kamut® Khorasan on the fecal microbiota by the phylogenetic microarray platform High Taxonomic Fingerprint (HTF)-Microbi.Array, and metabolic profiles by using solid-phase microextraction–gas chromatography–mass spectrometry (SPME–GC–MS). With regard to the fecal microbiota, a tendency towards a reduction in Bacteroides/Prevotella and an enrichment in Clostridium cluster XIVa was observed after whole Kamut® Khorasan intake, compared to whole durum wheat adopted as control diet. The metabolic profile of subjects administered with the whole Kamut® Khorasan-based diet, in comparison to the control, was mainly characterized by phenol, nonanol and short chain fatty acids (SCFA), whereas alcohols, such as oleyl alcohol and isopropyl alcohol, better discriminated the whole durum wheat intake. Co-abundance analysis of microbiota and metabolome data evidenced the presence of a potentially health-promoting co-abundance group (CAG), which was more abundant in the whole Kamut® Khorasan-based diet group.These results may contribute to support our previous in vivo findings related to the anti-inflammatory activity and counteraction of oxidative stress by Kamut® Khorasan-based cereal foods.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY
Previous epidemiological studies have indicated that the intake of whole grain-based foods is inversely associated with the risk of developing chronic diseases, such as heart disease, type 2 diabetes and obesity. One of the main health benefits of whole grains revolves around the fact that they contain more fibre compared to their refined counterparts. Indigestible dietary fibres undergo bacterial fermentation in the gastrointestinal tract producing short chain fatty acids and other beneficial metabolites that have been suggested as partly responsible for the reduction of inflammatory markers. Kamut® Khorasan is the trademark of an ancient wheat cultivar, the Khorasan wheat and is a tetraploid wheat (Triticum turgidum ssp. turanicum). Previous studies have shown that Kamut Khorasan bread protects rats from oxidative stress to a greater extent compared to whole-grain durum wheat. One of the first studies on humans confirmed in 22 healthy volunteers that a replacement diet with Kamut® Khorasan based products could be effective in reducing markers of oxidative stress and inflammatory status, as well as metabolic risk factors. In the current study, the aim was to further investigate the effect of Kamut® Khorasan on the gut microbiota and metabolic profiling in 30 healthy volunteers. The study found that the whole Kamut® Khorasan-based diet was mainly characterized by the release of short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and phenol compounds, as well as by a slight increase in health-promoting bacterial species of the gut microbiota in comparison to whole durum wheat adopted as a control diet. Although the difference between the two wheat types were not considered as significant, the authors state that it is important to highlight that these slight differences should still be considered as relevant since the two wheat cultivars are botanically very close.