Centre of Research & Education in Nutrition & Digestibility of Bread & the Gut Microbiome
Over forty years ago, a little girl fell head over heels in love with the bread she was served in the local village restaurant in the Dordogne.
This simple passion led her to train as a baker, but when she stopped being able to eat industrial bread, she embarked on a lifetime of research to discover why she could digest sourdough. This has has grown into The Sourdough School as we know it today; leading the way in the application of the most up to date research, to make bread that nourishes.
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This article provides a summary of the main pathologies related to wheat in the human body, including celiac disease, wheat allergy, non-celiac wheat sensitivity, fructose malabsorption, and irritable bowel syndrome. Differencesinreactivityarediscussedfor ancient,heritage,andmodernwheats.
Duetolargevariabilityamongspeciesandgenotypes,itmightbefeasibletoselect wheatvarietieswithloweramountsandfewertypesofreactiveprolaminsandfructans.Einkornispromisingforproducing fewer immunotoxiceffects inanumber ofceliac researchstudies. Additionally, theimpactofwheatprocessingmethods onwheatsensitivityisreviewed.Researchindicatesthatgerminationandfermentationtechnologiescaneffectively altercertainimmunoreactivecomponents.Forindividualswithwheatsensitivity,less-reactivewheatproductscanslow down diseasedevelopment and improve qualityof life.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY
The paper provides us with a detailed breakdown of what gluten is and main triggering components in gluten that are the main causes for wheat allergies and immune reactions. The study defines gluten as a very diverse and complex group of water-insoluble wheat proteins: gliadin and glutenin. Gliadins are prolamin proteins which are rich in amino acids such as proline and glutamine. Glutenins on the other hand are polymeric proteins that provide the elasticity and strength to dough, allowing bread to hold its shape. During gastrointestinal digestion, each type of wheat protein breaks down into a wide array of peptides of varying lengths. However, the rich proline residues in gluten form compact structures that can be difficult to digest and certain types of these digestion resistant gluten peptides are found to mediate adverse immune reactions in predisposed individuals. The paper states that although no wheat species or varieties are currently safe for individuals with celiac disease or wheat allergies, ndividuals or populations who are not symptomatic, can seek to lower the amount of reactive wheat components in their diets