Reference Number: 93
The role of wheat, and particularly of gluten protein, in our diet has recently been scrutinized.
This article provides a summary of the main pathologies related to wheat in the human body, including celiac disease, wheat allergy, non-celiac wheat sensitivity, fructose malabsorption, and irritable bowel syndrome. Differences in reactivity are discussed for ancient, heritage, and modern wheats.
Due to large variability among species and genotypes, it might be feasible to select wheat varieties with lower amounts and fewer types of reactive prolamins and fructans. Einkorn is promising for producing fewer immunotoxic effects in a number of celiac research studies. Additionally, the impact of wheat processing methods on wheat sensitivity is reviewed. Research indicates that germination and fermentation technologies can effectively alter certain immunoreactive components. For individuals with wheat sensitivity, less-reactive wheat products can slow down disease development and improve quality of life.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY
The paper provides us with a detailed breakdown of what gluten is and main triggering components in gluten that are the main causes for wheat allergies and immune reactions. The study defines gluten as a very diverse and complex group of water-insoluble wheat proteins: gliadin and glutenin. Gliadins are prolamin proteins which are rich in amino acids such as proline and glutamine. Glutenins on the other hand are polymeric proteins that provide the elasticity and strength to dough, allowing bread to hold its shape. During gastrointestinal digestion, each type of wheat protein breaks down into a wide array of peptides of varying lengths. However, the rich proline residues in gluten form compact structures that can be difficult to digest and certain types of these digestion resistant gluten peptides are found to mediate adverse immune reactions in predisposed individuals. The paper states that although no wheat species or varieties are currently safe for individuals with celiac disease or wheat allergies, ndividuals or populations who are not symptomatic, can seek to lower the amount of reactive wheat components in their diets