Reference Number: 54
The most common question asked by patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is, “Doctor, what should I eat?” Findings from epidemiology studies have indicated that diets high in animal fat and low in fruits and vegetables are the most common pattern associated with an increased risk of IBD. Low levels of vitamin D also appear to be a risk factor for IBD. In murine models, diets high in fat, especially saturated animal fats, also increase inflammation, whereas supplementation with omega 3 long-chain fatty acids protect against intestinal inflammation. Unfortunately, omega 3 supplements have not been shown to decrease the risk of relapse in patients with Crohn’s disease. Dietary intervention studies have shown that enteral therapy (tube feeding), with defined formula diets, helps children with Crohn’s disease and reduces inflammation and dysbiosis. Although fiber supplements have not been shown definitively to benefit patients with IBD, soluble fiber is the best way to generate short-chain fatty acids such as butyrate, which has anti-inflammatory effects. Addition of vitamin D and curcumin has been shown to increase the efficacy of IBD therapy. There is compelling evidence from animal models that emulsifiers in processed foods increase risk for IBD. We discuss current knowledge about popular diets, including the specific carbohydrate diet and diet low in fermentable oligo-, di-, and monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAPS). We present findings from clinical and basic science studies to help gastroenterologists navigate diet as it relates to the management of IBD.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY
The rapid increase in the incidence of IBD and other immune mediated diseases indicates a role for diet as a major contributor for the onset of the disease. There is mounting evidence from basic and clinical research studies that diet could increase the risk of IBD in susceptible individuals, and that modifying diet could alter risk or disease development. The current paper states that there are a number of clinical trials that are underway which hopefully will lead to new approaches to manage and prevent IBD which will help change the course of such diseases. Until then, studies so far suggests that patients should be advised to eat a well- balanced diet, such as the Mediterranean-style diet, avoiding processed foods or foods that may worsen your symptoms.