Reference Number: 92
Intolerance & Sensitivity: Coeliac
Celiac disease (CD) and type 1 diabetes (T1D) are autoimmune conditions in which dietary gluten has been proven or suggested to play a pathogenic role. In CD; gluten is established as the instigator of autoimmunity; the autoimmune process is halted by removing gluten from the diet; which allows for resolution of celiac autoimmune enteropathy and subsequent normalization of serological markers of the disease. However; an analogous causative agent has not yet been identified for T1D. Nevertheless; the role of dietary gluten in development of T1D and the potentially beneficial effect of removing gluten from the diet of patients with T1D are still debated.
In this review, we discuss the comorbid occurrence of CD and T1D and explore current evidences for the specific role of gluten in both conditions; specifically focusing on current evidence on the effect of gluten on the immune system and the gut microbiota.
The review focussed on the role of gluten as an important player in the pathogenesis of CD and T1D. The high rate of comorbidity between these two autoimmune diseases and their rapidly increasing prevalence in the last few decades underscore the importance of screening in high risk patients and the need to further explore and detail the contributory role of environmental factors that may be involved.
SIGNIFICANCE OF THIS STUDY
The association between Coeliac disease (CD) and Type 1 Diabetes (T1D) was first reported in the late 1960s and the prevalence of CD in patients with T1D is estimated to fall between 1.4% and 19.7%. In some cases, both CD and T1D occur comorbidly or in other words simultaneously. This study reviews the role of gluten as a causative agent for the onset of coeliac disease and type 1 diabetes and provides feedback on the role of gluten free diets in combating both these conditions. Although it is well established that a gluten free diet is beneficial in alleviating the symptoms of coeliac disease, the evidence of it being beneficial in dealing with type 1 diabetes is still unclear. The paper highlights environmental and genetic factors to also be causative factors for the onset of both these conditions and that it isn’t solely triggered by gluten.